The taxonomy of Chamaedrilus glandulosus (Michaelsen, 1888) s. l., most commonly known previously as Cognettia glandulosa, is revised. A recent molecular systematic study has shown that this taxon harbours two cryptic, but genetically well separated lineages, each warranting species status. In this study these two lineages are scrutinized morphologically, on the basis of Michaelsen’s type material as well as newly collected specimens from Central and Northern Europe. Chamaedrilus glandulosus s. s. is redescribed and Ch. varisetosus sp. n. is recognized as new to science. The two species are morphologically very similar, differing mainly in size, but seem to prefer different habitats, with Ch. glandulosus being a larger aquatic species, and Ch. varisetosus being smaller and mainly found in moist to wet soil.